This is the most commonly asked question by people when they find out they need root canal treatment for the same tooth a second time. A valid question.
Just because a tooth has root canal treatment does not make it impartial to re-infection. So if you have been advised to have a root canal treatment again, it is most likely because your tooth ishas become infected.
If a tooth that has had root canal treatment is diagnosed as infected, it could be due to the following reasons:
Depending on the cause of infection, your Endodontist can discuss alternative treatment options and offer treatments based on success rates. Typically these options would include apical surgery, partial retreatment of the root filling or tooth extraction.
Similarly to the initial root canal treatment, retreatment can take up to 2-3 visits to complete.
Like anything in medicine and dentistry, the best chance for success is getting it right the first time. Any treatment that needs to be repeated has a lower chance of success. However, this assessment is very case specific. Often, Endodontists can re-treat teeth other dDentists have condemned to extraction. So it is always best to get an opinion from an Endodontist and then make an informed decision.